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آیا سال نوی شیطانی واقعا وجود دارد؟

1392/11/18 17:53نویسنده : Agostino Di Bartolomei

 

این اواخر در بعضی رسانه‌ها گفته شد که تکه پارچه‌ای که به خون پاپ ژان پل دوم، رهبر پیشین کاتولیک‌های جهان آغشته شده بود، مخصوصا همزمان با "سال نوی شیطان‌پرستان" دزدیده شده است. اما آیا واقعا چنین سال نویی وجود دارد؟

این تکه پارچه دوباره پیدا شده، و حالا تصور می‌شود که سرقت آن هیچ ربطی به شیطان‌پرستی نداشته است.

اما این ایده که شیطان‌پرستان شب اول فوریه را به‌عنوان شب سال نو جشن بگیرند، مدت‌هاست که مطرح است.

جیووانی پانونتسیو، مدرس ایتالیایی مطالعات مذهبی، هفته گذشته گفت که زمان سرقت تکه پارچه آغشته به خون پاپ سابق، طبق تقویم شیطان‌پرستان با روزی مصادف است که "بطور نمادین به خون و صلیب بی‌حرمتی می‌شود". اما این باور که شیطان‌پرستان روزهای خاصی را جشن می‌گیرند، از کجا آمده است؟

تقویمی که به نام تقویم شیطانی شناخته می‌شود، حاوی ده‌ها مناسبت مشخص است، اما ریشه این مناسبت‌ها مبهم است.

نسخه‌هایی از این تقویم را می‌توان عمدتا در وب‌سایت‌های متعلق به گروه‌های مسیحی یا شبکه‌های تلویزیونی پیدا کرد. دکتر بیل الیس، کارشناس فرهنگ عامه و مسائل اسرارآمیز در فرهنگ معاصر، چند سال پیش در مصاحبه‌ای گفت که این تقویم اولین بار در سال ۱۹۸۷ در مقاله‌ای که در یک مجله منتشر شد، به چاپ رسید.

آقای الیس می‌گوید: "همانطور که منتقدان بعدها اشاره کردند، این مناسبت‌ها از منابع مختلفی، از جمله دستورالعمل گیر انداختن جادوگران در قرن پانزدهم، موسوم به مالئاس مالیفیکاروم، گرفته شده اند."

در تقویم مذکور روز ۲ فوریه به‌عنوان روزی مشخص شده که در آن رسوم جنسی و خونی شیطان‌پرستان اجرا می‌شوند. این روز در تقویم مسیحی عید تقدیس حضرت مریم است. پاگان‌ها (در عالم مسیحیت به کافران اطلاق می‌شد) بجای این مناسبت، جشن ایمبالک را برگزار می‌کنند که نماد بیدار شدن دوباره زمین و زیاد شدن انرژی خورشید است.

یسپر آگارد پیترسن، استادی دانشگاه علوم و فناوری نروژ، می‌گوید: "ارتباط میان شیطان‌پرستان و اول فوریه کاملا خیالی است."

آقای پیترسن که در رشته مطالعات دینی دکترا دارد، بسیاری از فرهنگ‌ها در اواخر زمستان جشنواره نور برگزار می‌کرده اند، و بعضی از آنها هنوز هم این سنت را ادامه می‌دهند، و در بسیاری از نقاط جهان از جمله بریتانیا، اروپای مرکزی و اسکاندیناوی، سنت‌های قدیمی‌تر در کنار آداب و سنن جدیدتر به حیات خود ادامه می‌دهند.

او اضافه کرد: "نئوپاگان‌ها و افرادی که خداپرست نیستند دوباره احیا شده اند و جشنواره‌های اسکاندیناویایی و سلتی را از سر گرفته اند. مسلما مسیحیان تبشیری و کاتولیک‌های محافظه‌کار متوجه این قضیه شده اند. شیطان‌پرستان و جادوگران از این نظر از قدیم با هم وجه اشتراک داشته اند و این وجه اشتراک تا به امروز ادامه دارد. البته شیطان‌پرستان به گروه‌های مختلفی تقسیم می‌شوند و هیچ تقویم اعتقادی وجود ندارد که آنها را با هم متحد کند."

به گفته دکتر دیوید باتملی، استاد مطالعات دینی و جامعه‌شناسی در دانشگاه مشترک‌المنافع ویرجینیا، در حال حاضر چندین گروه شیطان‌پرست نظیر کلیسای شیطان، معبد سِت و طبقه نُه فرشته، و همچنین "گروه‌هایی که کمتر شناخته شده اند"، وجود دارند.

او می‌گوید: "بعضی از این گروه‌ها مثل بسیاری ادیان دیگر تقویم خاص خود را دارند. ادعای وجود شبکه زیرزمینی عظیمی از شیطان‌پرستان حالا دیگر اعتبار خود را از دست داده، اما هنوز هم گروه‌های کوچکی وجود دارند که این روایت را زنده نگاه می‌دارند. بخشی از این کار تدوین اعتقادات، مناسک، مناسبت‌ها، ایجاد شخصیت‌های اسرارآمیز و قربانیان است که باعث می‌شوند کل داستان انسجام داشته باشد."

در نتیجه، شنبه‌شب‌ها دلیلی برای ترسیدن از غریبه‌های سیاه‌پوش وجود ندارد. چنین فردی احتمالا یک جوان بی‌آزار است، و نه یک مرید لوسیفر (شیطان) که قصد دارد "نیروهای تاریکی" را بکار گیرد.


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